Copeland™ Brand Products Technical
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Copeland™ Brand Products Technical
Copeland™ Brand Products Technical
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What is considered good oil pressure?
Good oil pressure is 20-60 psid, this is the differential between crankcase and oil pump discharge.
How can I dispose of my failed compressor?
If a welded compressor is being disposed, the refrigerant should be recovered and the oil removed. The compressor should be rendered unusable by drilling holes in the casing and scrapping the compressor at a location for metal scraps.
If the compressor is a semi-hermetic, a core value may apply. Recover the refrigerant from the compressor. After removal from the system, the compressor ports should be plugged to prevent oil leakage. It is recommended to use the plugs or shipping pads of the replacement compressor. Return to an authorized Emerson PrimeSource Wholesaler.
Can I purchase pistons, rods, bearings and cranks?
They are not available from Emerson. If these components fail, there's usually more damage in the compressor that could cause reduction in capacity, efficiency and/or additional component failures.
How do I know if a compressor is operating to capacity?
When selecting a compressor the capacity is listed under specific conditions (Example: ARI conditions for air conditioning compressors is at 130oF (54.4oC) condensing and 45oF (7.2oC) evaporator). A compressor capacity will change as the load changes. To accurately check compressor capacity one should note the conditions you are operating at and plot these on a capacity curve designed for the specific compressor and refrigerant you are using. In short, the capacity that the compressor is drawing is specific to the conditions. To obtain capacity data please check with your nearest Emerson PrimeSource Wholesaler or visit Emerson's Online Product Information (OPI) database.
What needs to be checked when a compressor trips on the protector?
Copeland® protectors are inherent, meaning they sense both temperature and amperage. If a protector trips, the system should be investigated for the increased temperature or amperage problem. Some causes could be charge shortage, high head pressures, increased friction of moving parts, reduced voltage, unbalanced voltages, shorted windings, etc.
What needs to be checked when an erratic oil pressure control trips?
First, we must recognize that there is no such thing as a nuisance oil control trip. The tripped control is warning you of an existing problem. The system should not be reset until you have looked in the sight glass and recorded the level. If the oil is below the glass, the system should be checked for leaks or oil logging. Investigate for the oil return problem. This could be corrected by longer or more defrost cycles, reducing short cycling, preventing low refrigerant charge, eliminating piping problems, etc. If it is determined that oil should be added it must be removed once the problem is remedied.
If the oil is above the glass, the system should be checked for the possibility of refrigerant diluting the oil. Liquid refrigerant floodback could be identified by absence of superheat at the compressor. It would be advisable to separate the refrigerant from the oil by heating the oil with a crankcase heater a few hours before starting or by jogging the compressor (quick start/stop of the compressor several times) until the foaming is controlled. Remember the suction service valve should not be closed while jogging the compressor. If the valve is closed the refrigerant and oil could manage a more violent explosion (flooded start) as there is less space for the initial start-up pressure to be pulled from.
If the oil level is in the sight glass, the oil may be checked if it is too hot. Identify this by checking the temperature six inches out on the discharge line. The maximum is 225°F (107.2oC) at this distance. Any higher temperatures could mean that the cylinder temperature is above 300°F (148.9oC) and it could cause oil control trips. If the oil is foaming excessively it may have refrigerant dilution and may be identified as a floodback problem. On refrigerant cooled semi-hermetic compressors, the problem could be an over-pressurized crankcase. The root of this problem is overheat that causes excessive crankcase pressures due to piston blow by at low loads. The problem may be found by attaching a gauge manifold set to the crankcase and the suction. With the compressor operating, start slowly front seating the suction service valve. Observation of the gages should show both falling at an equal amount until the valve is fully front seated. The point at which the crankcase gauge stops falling is proof that the crankcase blow by pressure exceeds the venting.
What would cause my compressor to overheat?
Overheating problems occur when oil in a compressor is heated to the point where it loses its ability to lubricate. If the heat is high enough, the oil breaks down chemically. Major reasons for overheating due to discharge temperatures are:
1. Low suction pressures
2. High condensing pressures
3. High compression ratios
Low suction pressure is normally the result of incorrect pressure switch settings, pressure drop in suction line, light load operating conditions or restricted evaporator coils. High condensing pressures can be caused by inadequate airflow through the condenser, undersized discharge line/condenser, and overcharge of refrigerant or noncondensables in the system. High-pressure ratios are a combination of low suction pressures and high condensing pressures. If the compressor is operated within the manufacturer guidelines, this condition will not cause a problem. Emerson recommends monitoring discharge line temperatures to determine if the compressor is in a danger zone of overheating. Generally, discharge line temperature of 225ºF (107.2oC) and below will insure the compressor of a long life.
What would cause a compressor to run in a rapid cycling mode?
Possible causes include:
1. Compressor oversized for load
2. The "cycle on" and "cycle off" range of low pressure control is set too close
3. Undersized evaporator/suction line piping
4. A leak in liquid line solenoid valve
5. Oil float feeding erratically
6. The compressor shows a high to low internal leak
What do I do if the oil pressure safety trips?
If the oil pressure safety trips, perform the following analysis:
1. Check the sight glass for the proper oil level or foaming. If there is insufficient oil in the compressor, loss of oil pressure will occur. Foaming oil will also result in low oil pressure.
2. Low oil level is usually caused by inadequate return of oil from the system. The refrigerant piping, accumulator, oil reservoir, evaporator superheats, defrost scheme and oil floats should be reviewed. Foaming in the sight glass is an indication that liquid refrigerant may be present. Liquid can return to the crankcase by migration during long off cycles or in large gusts when rapid system changes occur, as seen during defrost. Incorrect expansion valve settings are typically a cause. A crankcase heater or suction accumulator may be needed.
Are pressure relief valves required to be used on remanufactured compressors purchased from Emerson wholesalers?
Any remanufactured semi-hermetic Copeland® compressor (with the exception of 2Ds, 6Ds, and 8Ds) must have a low side pressure relief valve (P/N 998-0051-02) installed and set to a maximum of 375 psig if the compressor will be used with any of the R-502 replacement refrigerants approved by Emerson. While these compressors were originally built to meet industry accepted design safety factors for R-502, they may not meet these factors with the new higher-pressure refrigerants. All new Copeland semi-hermetic compressor models - those manufactured since January 1, 1994 - meet the design safety factors for these new refrigerants.
Will replacing the compressor solve a unit's noise problem?
In many cases, replacing the compressor will not resolve the sound issue and it is recommended that different possible noise sources be explored before a compressor exchange is considered. The noise radiated by A/C systems can be generated by:
1. Compressor noise as an airborne sound
2. Structural vibration of system's components such as refrigerant pipes, panels etc.
3. Outdoor/indoor fan Because of the interaction between these sources of noise, it is sometimes difficult to pinpoint the origins of noise using the ear only. In general, the compressor is not the principal noise generator if the noise is heard only indoors or if the noise is still present when only the fan is running. For more information on this topic see Scroll Sound Enclosures.
Can a universal capacitor and relay be used with Copeland® compressors?
The only universal start assist device approved for Copeland single-phase compressors is a PTCR (Positive Temperature Coefficient Resistor) device with a resistance as low as 12.5 ohms or higher. These devices are made by various manufacturers and are applied parallel to the run capacitor. They are approved only as low volt start-assist with piston compressors in systems where the refrigerant pressure equalizes or scroll bearing units. All other applications must use the specified Emerson start capacitor and relay combination. For more information on this topic see Scroll Start Components and Compressor Start Components.
A single-phase unit dims the customer's lights when it starts. What can be done to remedy this?
The simplest device to reduce light dimming caused by voltage droop while the compressor is starting is to add a start capacitor and relay. The capacitor and relay will reduce the amount of time the compressor is in locked rotor and thus reduces the amount of time the bulbs dim to a tolerable flicker.
For more information on this topic see Scroll Start Components.
How can I tell if the compressor is operating properly?
The best way to determine if a compressor is pumping properly is with a set of gages, an amp meter and the compressor specification sheet. Measure the operating discharge and suction pressure as well as the amperage. Using the compressor curve sheet, found on Emerson's Online Product Information (OPI) database, compare the amperage reading at the measured pressures. Because of voltage variations and measurement inaccuracies the measured amperage should compare to the actual curve sheet values within +/- 15%. Never check compressor operation by closing the suction valve to see how low the suction will go. This might actually cause damage to the compressor because of heat build up.
Is there a limit on the length of line runs or vertical risers?
Since Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc. is a component supplier we lack the field experience to adequately answer piping questions such as this. We would recommend following the system Original Equipment Manufacturer's (OEM) guidelines, if available. Where such information is not available, we would recommend using standard ASHRAE piping guidelines or the tables found in Emerson's refrigeration manuals AE-101 through 105. These are available through an Emerson wholesaler for a nominal fee. For more information on a related topic see AE Bulletin 22-1182.
How much oil is in a hermetic compressor and what is a complete recharge?
The amount of oil in fluid ounces is on the nameplate in the box marked oil. A complete recharge is four fluid ounces less than this amount since some of the oil remains in the compressor after draining. For more information on oil used in Copeland® compressors see AE Bulletin 17-1248.
Where can I find information on Copeland brand products technical training?
Visit the training page for information on Emerson's renowned Compressor Operation & Service Seminars (COSS), as well as order forms for videos, workbooks and literature.
Why do refrigeration manufacturers recommend only 80% to 90% of the original system charge when retrofitting to some HFCs?
The new refrigerants are considered “higher efficient” and they are trying to sell refrigerants under the requirement of fewer component change outs. For example, an expansion valve works to full capacity if it has full liquid (subcooled liquid) to its inlet. If the expansion valve is considered oversized for the new refrigerant then the valve capacity will decrease if the refrigerant starts to boil off before the inlet of the valve. The vapor molecules take up more space than the liquid molecules, therefore, less refrigerant passes through the valve with vapor. Emerson recommends valves to be sized accordingly and to charge the system as basic rules apply: expansion valves are charged by clearing the sight glass in the liquid line at high load (subcooling) and the cap tubes are charged by evaporator superheat at low load conditions. If only a percentage of charge is used the compressor could overheat during an extended high load condition.
Is it acceptable to use R-404A and AB?
Emerson does not approve the use of Alkyl Benzene oil with R-404A. R-404A is a HFC and Polyol Ester is the only approved oil. The Alkyl Benzene will not be miscible with the HFC. The HCFC refrigerants have a small amount of chlorine that is miscible with the AB oil. Tests have proven that oil return problems result when AB is used with R-404A.
Can I directly replace R-12 with R-134a refrigerant?
Emerson does not agree with any so-called direct drop in replacements. Refer to Form 93-04 for specific retrofit recommendations. Briefly, this will include an oil change from mineral oil to Polyol Ester oil. The mineral oil must be below 5% total in the system. The expansion valves may be oversized. The system must dry and clean.
Can I use a receiver on a cap tube system?
The refrigerant charge is critical in capillary tube systems since normally there is no receiver to store excess refrigerant. Too much refrigerant will cause high discharge pressures and motor overloading, and possible liquid floodback to the compressor during the off cycle; too little will allow vapor to enter the capillary tube causing a loss in system capacity.
Should a suction line filter drier be installed before or after an accumulator?
A drier is designed to be a temporary device to clean a system after a burnout. The suction line acts like a chimney during the burn and the soot carries into the accumulator. The soot will need to be caught before entering a newly installed compressor. For this reason we suggest that the drier be installed between the compressor and the accumulator. It should be removed within 48 hours and replaced until the system is cleaned and acid free. At this time it may be removed or a filter left in place. The filter may be installed up stream of the accumulator to keep the accumulator from being contaminated.
Which starting components should be used with the new Copeland® single-phase welded models?
Only Emerson authorized start components should be used. We have tested and approved the heavy-duty start components. Contact your local authorized PrimeSource Wholesaler for proper selection.
What are the proper methods to determine operating superheat, sub-cooling and net oil pressures?
Superheat at the evaporator should be checked as close to the end of the coil as possible (preferably near the expansion valve thermal bulb). Take the pressure at this location with a pressure tap or the EPR shrader. Convert this to saturation temperature and compare it to the actual temperature obtained near the thermal bulb.
Superheat at the compressor should be checked at the compressor only. Take the suction pressure at the service valve and convert it to saturation temperature. Compare this to the actual temperature obtained approximately six inches out on the suction line.
Subcooling should be checked as close to the inlet of the evaporator metering device as possible. Take the pressure of the liquid line near the metering device inlet and convert this to saturation temperature. Compare it to the actual temperature obtained near the same point the pressure was obtained.
Net oil should compare the actual forces that work on the oil pump. This includes oil pump outlet pressure and crankcase pressure (not suction pressure). The suction pressure on a semi-hermetic refrigerant cooled compressor may be a couple of pounds pressure difference from the actual crankcase pressure. This especially holds true if the compressor is a two-stage application that has intermediate pressure working on the crankcase. Place a gauge manifold on the oil pump discharge and one on the compressor crankcase, the difference is net oil pressure.
Can I mix different oils?
Refer to the publication, No. 93-11 from Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
Can I use different weight oil?
Yes. Refer to the publication No. 93-11 from Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
Can I use R22 with POE?
Yes. Refer to publication No. 93-11 from Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
Can I add an additive to the oil in my system?
No. Additives are not permitted. Refer to Application Engineering Bulletin No. 17-1282.
When we are assembling the system it is open to the air for several hours. What effect will this have on POE oil?
Exposure to ambient air will cause moisture to be absorbed in the POE oil. Refer to various HFC refrigerant retrofit guidelines published by Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
Will too high of an oil level cause the compressor to trip on oil failure?
No. It may result in a motor protector trip due to high amps.
What is the viscosity of POE oil?
The viscosity of oils used in Copeland® compressors is selected by the design of the compressor and varies from 22 to 32 cst (centistokes). Refer to the Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc. publication No. 93-11 for further details.
What should the oil level be in the sight glass of a Copeland® compressor?
Typically ½ sight glass of oil is required in Copeland® compressors; some models are different. Refer to Application Engineering Bulletin No. 4-1281 for further details.
Where can I find what refrigerants are approved for Copeland® compressors?
Approved refrigerants can be found in the Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc. publication No. 93-11.
What is centistokes and what is the difference between 22 CC and 32 CC?
Centistokes (cst) is the unit of measure for viscosity of the oil. 22 CC oil has a viscosity of 22 cst at standard conditions and 32 CC oil has 32 cst.
What percent mix of oils is acceptable?
Refer to the refrigerant changeover guidelines from Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
What would be the effect if I topped off the compressor with the wrong oil?
Copeland recommends topping with approved oils as listed in publication No. 93-11. Use of non-approved oils may result in oil management and lubrication issues that could lead to system inefficiencies and compressor failure.
Are all POE refrigerant oils the same?
No. Oils vary in viscosity, formulation, etc. and are designed for different applications in different compressors.
What acid test kit does Emerson Climate Technologies recommend?
Emerson Climate Technologies recommends the Emerson® Universal Acid Test Kit, product code number 064427.
What will happen if I use Mineral oil or Alkybenzene oil with a HFC refrigerant?
Copeland recommends using oils approved as listed in publication No. 93-11. Use of non-approved oils may result in oil management and lubrication issues that could lead to system inefficiencies and compressor failure.
How long can I leave POE oil exposed to the atmosphere before contamination occurs?
Exposure to ambient air will cause moisture to be absorbed in the oil. Refer to the various HFC refrigerant retrofit guidelines published by Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
Will warranty be affected if I used the wrong oil and refrigerant combination?
How can I determine what oil is in a compressor?
A complete chemical analysis will confirm the identity of the oil. However, if there is doubt as to the oil in the compressor, we recommend changing the oil to what is approved in the Emerson Climate Technologies publication No. 93-11.
Does Emerson Climate Technologies analyze oil from failed compressors?
Investigation of failed compressors generally requires oil analysis.
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